” Ancient Computer “
The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient mechanical calculator designed to calculate astronomical positions. It is also described as the first ‘mechanical computer ‘. It was discovered more than 100 years ago in a Roman shipwreck, & is believed to have been used by ancient Greeks. The device was very thin & made of bronze. It was mounted in a wooden frame & had more than 2,000 characters inscribed all over. Today, it is believed that this instrument was a kind of mechanical analogue computer used to calculate the movements of stars & planets in astronomy.
“Decide to Be Happy” ……Billington
Happiness is not a goal, it’s a way of traveling.
—— William James
” It’s your mental attitude, that’s all there is to it, ” says Helen, my mother-in-law. ” Every morning I wake up & say, ‘It’s a new day.’ I can’t tell what will happen tomorrow and I don’t worry about what happened yesterday. If I have negative thoughts I flush them out and substitute constructive ones. I consciously choose to be up.“
Study after study reveals that happiness has little to do with age. You will probably be just as happy at seventy or eighty-five as you were at thirty or forty-five.Or more so. Even people permanently disabled in accidents soon bounce back to their former level of happiness. They’re like the twisted, gnarled old wind-blown trees on a mountain ridge that endure disease and drought and storms, and emerge stronger & more vital than those protected trees farther down the mountain.
The point is, people who’ve enjoyed easy lives, who have endured few disasters, suffering, or loss, tend to be less strong or resilient emotionally. Adversity, if not overwhelming, builds strength and character.
Keys to a happy attitude :
- Decide to be happy. To a certain extent you create your own happiness – from the inside out.
- Happiness can survive the loss, suffering, and grief that are part of all our lives, and make us stronger. What matters most is not what happens to you, but how you react.
- Since no life can always be happy, when sometimes you feel miserable it helps to remember , this too shall change.
- True happiness consists of getting out of yourself , of focusing your attention on the world instead of on yourself. That means having an active life and absorbing interests.
- Test your known and yet-to-be discovered skills through some meaningful activity. Anything that challenges you will work.
- Genuinely care about other people.
Make it a habit to consciously remind yourself every day of things for which you are thankful.
Most people are just about as happy as they decide to be.
——— Abraham Lincoln
“Begin With Today”
When the tide of life turns against you, and the current upsets your boat, don’t waste tears on what might have been, Just lie on your back and float.
………. Anonymous
Ever look back & wish you’d done some things differently? I wish I had been a more nurturing mother. My husband & I wish we’d bought Microsoft stock ten years ago. It’s easy to suffer about what you could have done, moaning, “If only I’d done this….or that.”
But think about it. Most of us are the best parents, at the time, that we know how to be. Most of us try to make the best possible decisions about our love or work or investments. The point is, we should never be ashamed of saying we know now we could have done better, or we were wrong, for that admission also says we are wiser today than we were yesterday. And how much better can we do than that?
We’ve all made mistakes. Good old hindsight! We can’t undo the past. The only advantage in looking back is to learn to do better in the future.
Let’s say you bought a hundred shares of a hot stock five years ago at fifteen dollars a share. Today, after steadily sliding, it’s worth only three dollars a share. The price you paid is irrelevant.Today that money is gone, irretrievable. It wastes your emotional energy to fret & suffer over what happened long ago. You made your best decision at that time. Begin with today: What you now have is an investment worth three hundred dollars – period ! Make your decision based on today’s reality.
The same principle holds for relationships, jobs, or wherever you’ve invested time, energy or money. If the job you’ve had for nine years leaves you feeling bored & you’re getting nowhere, why not think about making a change? If you were unemployed , would you choose the job you have now? Making the decision to stay, even you’ve invested nine years, is essential doing just that. Take a fresh look at today’s options.
It’s like paying two hundred dollars for a class you don’t like & are getting nothing out of. You may think, “If I quit, I lose all the money.” But if you don’t quit , that money is still gone & you’ve lost your time, too.
The point is, Begin with today. You can’t change the past. You can only change the future, and since you are wiser now, start today to create the future you want.
—————– Dottie Billington.
Can we think alike?
- The Truth can never be wrong – even if no one hears it…… ” Mahatma Gandhi “
- Knowing is not enough ; we must apply . Willing is not enough; we must do….. ” Goethe “
- Life is what we make it; always has been, always will be….. ” Grandma Moses “
Number Theory…
Arithmetic is the science of numbers, the name stemming from the Greek word “arithmos” which means “number”.
- If we say to give an example of numbers everyone of us can promptly give that example.But if anyone asks what is “Whole number” or “Natural Number“, then hardly few of us can explain correctly. We should keep in mind that giving an example is not the sufficient criteria to explain a topic. Anyway, let’s come back to our main topic & start with Whole Numbers / Natural Numbers.
- Whole numbers (Natural Numbers) :
The concepts of Whole/Natural numbers began with the counting of people, animals & the various articles & possessions of primitive man. Counting produced the numbers 1(one) , 2 (Two), 3 (Three) etc., which are called Natural numbers. In arithmetic they are also referred to as whole numbers or Integers. But according to Euclid the numbers rather natural numbers were defined as a “Collection made up of units“; The sequence of whole numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6,…. goes on without an end & is called the set of Natural numbers.
2. Prime & Composite Numbers :
All whole numbers other that 1 have at least two divisors: Unity (one) and the number itself . Numbers that don’t have any other divisors are called ” Prime numbers “. For example 7, 11, 13, 17 etc.
Numbers which have other divisors beside 1 & the number itself are called “Composite numbers“. For example, 21.It has divisors 1, 3, 7, 21.
Note : 1 is neither prime nor composite
3. Fractions :
A fraction is a part of unity or several equal parts of unity. The number which indicates how many parts a unit is divided into is called “Denominator” of the fraction & the number indicating how many parts are taken is the “Numerator” of the fraction.
Eg : 4/5 (Four Fifths): Here 4 is numerator & 5 is denominator.
- Fractions can be divided into two parts, viz Proper Fraction & Improper Fraction.
- Proper fraction : If the numerator is less than (<) the denominator, the fraction is less than unity & is called a proper fraction. Eg: 5/7
- Improper fraction : If the numerator is greater than (>) the denominator, the fraction exceeds unity & is called an improper fraction. Eg: 7/5
4. Properties Of Decimal Fractions :
- Annexing zeros to the right hand side of a decimal fraction doesn’t change the value . Eg : 11.7 = 11.70 = 11.700 etc
- Dropping the zeros at the end of a decimal fraction doesn’t change the value of the fraction. Eg: 0.001120 = 0.00112
- A decimal fraction is increased (multiplied by) 10, 100, 1000 etc times if the decimal point is moved one place, two places, three places etc to the right.
- A decimal fraction is reduced by 10, 100, 1000 etc times if the decimal point is moved leftwards one, two, three etc. places.
By : Aniruddha